Types of Sentences in English Grammar pdf!
What is a Sentence in English Grammar?
In the alphabet of the English language, there are twenty-six letters. Alphabet is divided into two groups:
- VOWELS: (A, E, l, O, U)
- CONSONANTS: (The letters other than the vowels are called consonants.
What is the difference between a word and a sentence?
Here is the quick difference between a word and a sentence:
A meaningful combination of different letters is called a word. For example, Diary, Aslam, Train, etc.
A sentence is a group of words that makes complete sense. –OR A completely meaningful combination of different words is called a sentence.
- John does his work.
- I know him.
- She acceded to my request.
- He hankers after riches.
What is the Subject and Predicate in a Sentence?
Here is the quick difference between a subject and a predicate:
The word or words denoting the person or thing about which something is said are called the subject of the sentence.
- Birds fly.
- Dogs bark.
- Aslam is writing a letter.
Thing denoted as the subject are called the Predicate of the sentence.
- Joe is playing with toys.
- This pen is very good.
- A man came to my house.
- Children make a noise.
What is a phrase and clause in a Sentence?
Here is the definition of a phrase and a clause:
A combination of words that makes sense, but not a complete sense, is called a Phrase.
- in the east
- in a corner
- on the river
- through thick and thin
- a bird in the hand
A sentence that is a part of a larger sentence is called a Clause. It contains a Subject and a Predicate.
- This is the house / where we live.
- She has a chain / which is made of gold.
The first sentence “Where we live” is a sentence because it has a subject “we” and a predicate “live”. Similarly, “This is the house” is a sentence having this for its subject and “is” for its predicate. But both are parts of a larger sentence and hence each of them is called a clause.
Types of Sentence in English Grammar
Sentences may be classified either
- On the basis of their meaning.
- On the basis of their construction or structure.
On the Basis of their Meanings
Assertive or Declarative Sentences
Sentences that simply tell us that some action or event has taken place or not are called assertive or declarative sentences.
- Joe is a hardworking boy.
- John is not writing a letter.
- They do not agree with your proposal.
- Gilbert has finished his work.
Interrogative sentences are sentences that ask questions.
- Where are you going?
- Is it raining outside?
- What is the time by your watch?
- How are you?
Imperative sentences are sentences that express some request or order or advice. In these sentences the subject ‘you’ is understood.
- Polish my shoes. (order)
- Please give me your pen. (request)
- Do not waste your time. (advice)
Exclamatory sentences express some strong feelings of mind as joy, sorrow, surprise, or wonder. The mark of exclamation (!) is always used at the end of these sentences or words.
- Hurrah! We have won the match. (joy)
- Alas! He is dead. (sorrow)
- What a beautiful bird! (wonder)
Optative sentences express some wish or prayer.
- May you succeed in the examination!
- Would that he were rich!
- May you live long!
On the basis of their construction
On the basis Of their structure or construction, sentences may be classified as,
A simple sentence is a sentence that has only one predicate or ‘finite verb’.
- Aslam killed a snake.
- His courage won him honor.
A compound sentence consists of two or more clauses of equal rank joined together by some coordinating conjunction.
These clauses are independent of each other. They have simply been joined together.
- Night came on and rain fell heavily and we all got very wet.
The sentence has three clauses of equal rank
(a) Night came on (b) Rain fell heavily. (c) We all got very wet.
These clauses are independent of each other i.e. each of them can make complete sense without the other. Hence the sentence is compound.
Must Learn: Gerund Rules in English Grammar
A sentence that contains one main or principal clause and one or more dependent or subordinate clauses is called a Complex Sentence. The principal clause stands by itself and makes complete sense. Subordinate clauses cannot stand by themselves but are dependent on the principal clause. They are joined together by some subordinating conjunction.
- They rested when evening came.
- They rested. (Principal clause)
- When evening came. (Subordinate clause)
The clause “When evening came” cannot stand by itself and make good sense. It is dependent on the clause “they rested”. It is, therefore, called a Dependent or Subordinate Clause. Such a sentence is called a Complex Sentence.
- As the boxers advanced into the ring, the people said they would not allow them to fight.
This sentence consists of three Clauses:-
“The people said,” (Main Clause), “as the boxers advanced into the ring” (Sub-ordinate Adverb Clause) ,“They would not allow them to fight” (Sub-ordinate Noun Clause), It is also called a Complex Sentence.
Note: A Complex Sentence consists of one Main Clause and one or more Subordinate Clauses.
Infographics (Types of Sentences in English Grammar)
Download this lesson of types of sentences in English Grammar in PDF